Monday, August 6, 2018

The quirky Towai Tavern

This is one quirky place! Situated in Hikurangi just outside of Kawakawa the old Towai Tavern is on the Historic Places Trust list of NZ. It was established approx 133 years ago and was then moved in 1933 further up the hill on rollers.

Waimate Church of St John the Baptist and Churchyard

Interesting place this - classed as category 1 under the Historic Places Trust. The Church of St John the Baptist is a well-preserved example of timber Gothic Revival architecture, built during the latter stages of Church Missionary Society (CMS) involvement in New Zealand. Erected in 1870-1871, it sits within one of New Zealand's earliest churchyards, which is associated with two previous churches built on the site in 1831 and 1839. The churchyard and early chapels formed an integral part of the CMS station at Te Waimate, which had been established in 1830 as the first inland mission in New Zealand.

The station was important for conveying new ideas on farming, education and religion to Maori in the Far North and subsequently witnessed an early signing of the Treaty of Waitangi on the 10th February 1840 (see 'Te Waimate Mission House, Waimate North'). As one of the earliest churches in New Zealand, the first chapel was the location of the earliest known Pakeha church wedding in New Zealand (1831). By 1832, its surrounding churchyard was in use, with initial burials including those of missionary children. 

After the construction of a replacement chapel in 1839, the associated mission station was temporarily used as a college by Bishop George Selwyn (1809-1878) in 1843-1844, and subsequently as a headquarters for the British army during the first New Zealand - or Northern - War (1845-1846), after which it lost support among Maori. The station gradually fell into disrepair, with the last missionary school closing down in 1868.

The current church was built as a replacement for the dilapidated 1839 chapel, but on a smaller scale. Unlike the previous structures, it was created for a largely Pakeha congregation, who had increasingly settled in the region. Although administered by the London-based CMS, the building was erected at the same time as the mission district was formed into an Anglican parish. 

It was opened in April 1871 by William Cowie (1831-1902), the first Bishop of Auckland, who was responsible for a period of Anglican expansion in the Auckland Diocese. Built at a cost of £374 by Woolle & Company, the church comprised a nave, chancel and steeple, as well as a transept on its northern side.

The architect is believed to have been Marsden Clarke, a son of the Waimate missionary George Clarke (1798-1875) and brother of the first incumbent of the church Archdeacon E. Clarke (1831-1900). Its Gothic Revival design was similar to other CMS churches built from the 1850s, (see 'St Paul's Church, Hairini' and 'St John's Church, Te Awamutu'), but incorporated a board and batten exterior like Anglican churches in Auckland of the so-called Selwyn style, named after Bishop Selwyn. 

The building differed from the 'chapel' form of its 1839 predecessor, but retained references to its missionary origins by incorporating a pulpit, doors and other timber from the previous church. A timber Sunday School building was erected in the churchyard a few years later, in 1877.

Both buildings survived the withdrawal of the CMS from New Zealand in 1892, having been transferred to the Anglican authorities in 1886. Modifications to the church interior included the installation of an organ imported from Bevington & Sons in London in 1885. In 1929-1930, a stone lychgate was erected to commemorate the centenary of the CMS mission. From 1942, the centre of church activities in the area moved to nearby Kaikohe, following the growth of that town. In the middle of the twentieth century, the Sunday School building was relocated from the churchyard to adjoining land between the church and Te Waimate Mission House.

Servicing a small rural settlement, the church continues to be used for religious services, and retains most of its early fixtures and furnishings. The surrounding churchyard has been more substantially modified, but includes the graves of British soldiers killed in the first New Zealand War and those of prominent individuals such as George Clarke and his family. It contains both Maori and Pakeha grave markers and is surrounded by an 1878 picket fence.

The Church of St John the Baptist is significant for its links with the Church Missionary Society, and the organisation's later operations in New Zealand. It is important for reflecting the relationship between the CMS and the Anglican Church in the later nineteenth century, and an expansion of the Anglican ministry. 

The building is a product of important changes within colonial society, including the declining impact of missionary activity among Maori and the development of pastoral care for Pakeha settlers. It is connected with the lives of prominent individuals in New Zealand history, such as George Clarke and Bishop Cowie. It is also significant for its well-preserved interior - including an historic organ - which reflects nineteenth-century attitudes to liturgy, music and religion.

The surrounding burial ground is outstandingly important as one of New Zealand's earliest churchyards. Its grave markers and other elements contribute towards an understanding of burial, commemoration and other aspects of early colonial and later life. The site has considerable spiritual and symbolic value to both Maori and Pakeha, having been at the heart of Christian worship and commemoration in the district for well over 170 years.  

They are part of a broader cultural landscape, which incorporates other important structures, buried archaeological remains and historic trees, as well as wahi tapu. Closely associated structures include a Sunday School that originally stood in the churchyard, and the second-oldest building in the country - Te Waimate Mission House - which was used as the church vicarage in the later nineteenth century.

Current Use* Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Cemetery/Graveyard/Burial Ground
* Religion - Church* Religion - Churchyard* Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Grave surrounds/ railing* Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Headstone

Former Use* Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Cemetery/Graveyard/Burial Ground* Religion - Church* Religion - Churchyard* Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Grave surrounds/railing* Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Headstone* Boundary markers and street furniture - Wall/Fence

Notable Features
Registration covers the church, its fixtures and finishes, including recent modifications. Registration also encompasses the churchyard, incorporating its picket fence and grave monuments and markers. The churchyard contains historic trees and archaeological deposits, including burials, of nineteenth-century date.

Construction Dates
Site of first church: 1831
Churchyard in use: 1832
Site of second church: 1839
Original Construction - Construction of Church of St John the Baptist: 1870 - 1871
Original Construction - Sunday School erected: 1877
Original Construction - Picket fence erected: 1878
Modification - Steeple repaired and reshingled: 1895 - 1897
Modification - Church re-roofed with corrugated iron: 1918 - 1919
Original Construction - Construction of stone lych-gate: 1929 - 1930
Relocation - Relocation of Sunday School building to adjoining land: 1950 (circa) - 1960 (circa) Modification - Repairs, including re-roofing of church with shingles and minor modifications to interior: 1969 - 1970
Modification - Re-shingling of church roof, installation of fire sprinklers: 2001

Construction Professionals Woolle & Clarke, Marsden

There are no fees to pay to enter the churchyard and cemetery but the mission house costs $10 for adults and $5 for children.

Information taken from Waymarking.Com

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Stories in Stone: The Death of William Booth 1894

A trip to the Maungaturoto Anglican Cemetery to search for the resting places of Eliza and Charles Davies a couple weeks ago had me pausing at the grave of William Booth aged 26 years. William had been employed as a bushworker by Thomas Coates at Pukekararo (formerly known as Pukekaroro). Working in the bush felling kauri was a hazardous occupation. Booth had met with a violent death when he was severed in half by a log rolling down the chute killing him instantly.

In yesterday's issue we recorded the death of Mr. William Booth, who was killed at Mr. Coates' bush, Pukekaroro on the 12th instant. An inquest was held at Mangawai, on the 13th. It appears that deceased was a bush worker. He and a mate named Clarke were cross-cutting a log at the bottom of a shoot in the bush. He told the workmen at the top of the shoot that he only intended to cut two logs and then leave the shoot to work at another place in the bash. Instead of doing so he started to cut a third log. The men at the top were jacking a log along the skids when it accidentally rolled into the shoot. The; shouted "Look out below," whereupon Clarke got out of the way, but Booth was jambed between the two logs and his body was completely severed in halves. The jury returned a verdict in accordance with these facts, and exonerated all concerned from blame.
New Zealand Herald,20 February 1894, Page 4

A correspondent writes on Monday, February 12th, a very sad accident happened in Mr. T. Coates' bush, at Pukekaroro, when Mr. William Booth met with a sudden and violent death, which has caused quite a gloom upon that and surrounding districts, the deceased being a general favourite with all who knew him. He was a fine promising young man of 26, ever on the alert to lend a helping hand to all who needed it. The bushes at Pukekaroro and Maungaturoto were closed till after the funeral, and the high esteem in which he was held was abundantly testified by all the bushmen following to the grave, where, in all, about 160 people gathered to pay the last tribute of respect to his memory. Deceased was a member of the Forester's Court at Maungaturoto, and although the courb has been in existence eight years this is the first death among its members. The Foresters followed their deceased brother's remains to their last resting place ab Holy Trinity Church cemetery, Maungaturoto, where ib was met by its esteemed minister the Rev. W. Horsfall, who conducted the service in a very impressive manner, the hymn Days and Moments Quickly Flying," being sung. The Foresters' funeral service was read, and an address givan ab the grave by the Chief Ranger, Brother Chadwin. The coffin was covered with beautiful wreaths and flowers, placed there there by sorrowing and sympathetic hands. The deceased came from Taupiri, on the Waitako. Two of his brothers attended the funeral, Great sympathy is felt for them and all the relatives, in the sad and sudden sorrow now haTe sustained in the death of so good and worthy a son and brother, whose memory will be ever held in the highest esteem by all his brother Foresters and friends in the Kaipara district.
New Zealand Herald,19 February 1894, Page 5

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Stories in stone: Lionel Major Hardy (1929)

During the long process of digitising the cemetery records at the Congregational cemetery on Gorge Road I've encountered a few rather sad stories behind the names on the grave stones. In the case of Lionel Major Hardy, he was a young man at just 24 years old working for the Railways Department. Just six weeks before his tragic death Hardy had been transferred from the Maungaturoto station to Auckland, On the 14 December 1929, Hardy was out with some friends when the vehicle they were in rolled on Gorge Road. Hardy died as a result of his injuries before he reached Whangarei Hospital.


New Zealand Herald, Volume LXVI, Issue 20441, 18 December 1929, Page 14

A fatal motoring accident occurred at Maungaturoto late on Saturday afternoon.
Details are:— Killed Mr. Lionel M. Hardy, aged 24, a member of the refreshment room staff of the New Zealand Railways, Auckland.

Injured. Mr. John Dodds, of Huarau, aged 60, extensive injury to scalp. Mr. Alfred King, of Maungaturoto; fractured ribs and injuries to right side. The two other occupants of the car, Messrs. Williams and Peacock, also of the railway refreshment room staff, were not sufficiently injured to warrant admission to hospital. 
For some years Mr. Hardy was a well known member of the Maungaturoto railway refreshment room staff, and was transferred to Auckland six weeks ago. He was single, and as far as is known had no relatives in New Zealand. He had come to pay a weekend visit to friends at Maungaturoto.
The car in which the party of five was travelling was driven by Mr. Dodds, and was travelling down the steep siding in the vicinity of the Maungaturoto public hall at about 5.30 p.m., when it left the road, plunged over a sloping bank 5ft. high, and capsized. Evidently Mr. Hardy was crushed against a log or some hard obstacle and was terribly injured. He was alive when removed from the wreckage, and was attended to by Dr Dawson, but died half an hour before the Whangarei Hospital was reached at 8.15 p.m.
Mr. Dodds injuries lead to the conclusion that his head came in contact with the windscreen, but both he and Mr. King are progressing satisfactorily. The inquest into Mr. Hardy's death was opened at the hospital before Mr. G. N. Morris, S.M., yesterday, and. after medical testimony and evidence, of identification had been given, was adjourned to Maungaturoto on January 16.
New Zealand Herald, Volume LXVI, Issue 20440, 17 December 1929, Page 12

Monday, April 7, 2014

A War trophy from France

Back in February, I paid the Kauri Museum at Matakohe another visit. The museum has a vast collection of historical treasures including a battle scarred former church bell that came from the french towsnhip of La Bassee. For most of the First World War the township and surrounding area remained under German occupation.

After the fighting on the Aisne, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) headed north-west to support the left wing of the French Army and it was there that it came up against the German Army in what was to be the final and most northerly phase of the Race to the Sea.
Transported by bus from Abbeville, the British troops took up position on the front line between Béthune and Ypres, and reinforcements from Saint-Omer and Anvers soon joined them. The British Army set about establishing a front from Bixschoote, north of Ypres, to La Bassée with the French cavalry filling the gap between two army corps positioned further south, from La Bassée to Armentières. The landscape was flat and scored with many drainage ditches.
On 12 October the French lost control of Vermelles, a small town on the edge of the Pas-de-Calais coal basin, and this forced the British to make a move southwards in an attempt to fill the breach. On 13 October fierce fighting erupted between the British and Germans at Givenchy-lès-La Bassée and Cuinchy, on both sides of the canal, and continued for four days. The British managed to advance ten kilometres to the east until they came up against Aubers Ridge, where German counter-attacks forced them to fall back.
Further to the north the British managed to retake Mont des Cats, on 13 October, then Méteren and Mont Noir. Under heavy rain, which precluded aerial reconnaissance, they continued their advance and took Bailleul, Kemmel Hill and Messines. By 14 October the British had managed to establish a continuous front from Ypres to La Bassée Canal. Three days later they gained control of Armentières while, further to the north, the Germans directed their assault on the French and Belgian forces defending the Diksmuide Salient.
The operations of mid-October 1914 were the last to be carried out on French soil according to the traditional rules of a war of movement.
(Among the British casualties was one Bernard Montgomery, wounded at Méteren).
By 18 October 1914 the Western Front was complete. With flanking operations no longer possible, the only option remaining to the belligerents was to carry out frontal attacks on the enemy's lines in an attempt to break through them... If the battles fought by the British in the sector of the Lys River, in October 1914, were the last of the war of movement, those fought at Ypres between 19 October and 22 November were the first of the war of position.
In the winter that followed, the sector of the Lys became a "forgotten front" where soldiers suffered in the badly organized trenches, with mediocre supplies. The threat of death hung over them from the bullets of expert marksmen, unexpected mines, heavy shelling and the murderous attacks they were ordered to carry out on the lines of the enemy. Among the first confrontations of the war of position were the defence of Festubert by Indian troops on 23-24 November and that of Givenchy on 20-21 December 1914, both operations being a foretaste of the horrors to come.
Yves Le Maner
Director of La Coupole
History and Remembrance Centre of Northern France
Article by Yves Le Maner
Retrieved 07/04/2014

General view of La Bassee

Ruined La Bassee, France, during World War I. Parts of the houses are still standing and the road in the middle of the rubble is still visible. Cavalrymen, motorised vehicles and soldiers are all present carrying out different duties.

This photograph was taken sometime after 1915. La Bassee is best known for the battle which took place there in October-November 1914.


One of the mine craters at La Bassee

Ruined La Bassee, France. Two soldiers stand in the middle of a ruined La Bassee street. The soldiers are dwarfed by the crater which dominates the image. The scene is one of destruction and chaos.

The Battle of La Bassee took place between October and November 1914. Photographers, however, did not arrive at the Front until 1916, so the crater must have survived, as a crater, for at least two years. Even after the lapse of time the crater is obviously well remembered.

[Original reads: 'OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON THE BRITISH WESTERN FRONT IN FRANCE - One of the mine craters at La Bassee.']
Collection of National Media Museum (Frank Hurley/Australian War Records Section)

Anthony Silich embarked from Wellington on 13 November 1915 for the front. He served with the 8th Reinforcements, Otago Battalion. Silich was fortunate, he returned from the war with a bell as a reminder of his service to his country fighting in the trenches in France.

At Hukatere the other day, a bell, which is of considerable historic value, was presented to the school by a former pupil, Mr Anthony Silich. The bell was formerly hung in the belfry of a church, at La Bassee, but when the church was destroyed by German shell-fire and La Bassee was captured, the bell was discovered among the ruins and used in a German trench to sound the alarm of an approaching gas attack. In July, 1917, when the Allies recaptured La Bassee, and its environs, the bell was found in tne German trench, and was also used by the Allies to give warning of the approach of poison gas. Ultimately, bearing the scars of battle, in the form, of three shrapnel bullet marks, it came into possession of Quartermaster-Sergeant Silich, who brought it back as one of the trophies of war and presented it to the school where he had received his early training.
Colonist, Volume LXII, Issue 15250, 11 December 1919, Page 5

Lest we forget.

Monday, March 17, 2014

Fire at the Wairoa Bell (1908)

Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-19081126-13-8

A fire occurred here early on Sunday morning, destroyng. about  £4,000 worth of property in Victoria street About 2.30 a.m., the watchman discovered an outbreak of fire in the back.premises of the "Wairoa Bell" newspaper building. On account of the dry nature of the material the flames quickly got a strong hold, and the building and content were quickly, demolished..
Mr. H. Serjeant's fancy goods shop attached to the "Bell" office was .also destroyed. Mr. J. Collins wholesale produce and plumbing business, and the Dargaville Club building (next to Collins)was burnt to the ground.
Mr. J. Stallworthy, proprietor of the "Wairoa Bell," saved, nothing, and but little stock was saved by Mr. Collins. Mr. Serjeant, saved, nothing .The furniture of the dub was saved. Fortunately, what little wind was blowing was from.the north, otherwise the whole of one side  of Victoria-street must have gone. Excellent work, of the fire, brigade and. a bucket brigade prevented the fire spreading, though at one time the gravest doubt existed as to preventing the fire from crossing the street .to. the premises of McLean (baker) and Adams (draper).
 As.far as can be gathered the insurances are as follows:— "Wairoa Bell" newspaper, £600 on plant, etc., and building, in the Government office; Collins, on stock, in the London and Liverpool, £250  on the building and machinery in the New Zealand; H. Serjeant, £100 in the Imperial and £150 in the Government office, on stock; Dargaville Club. £350 on buildings and £140: on billiard-table and furniture and £75 in the Victoria office.
Auckland Star, Volume XXXIX, Issue 274, 16 November 1908, Page 5

Sunday, March 16, 2014

The Kaihu Tavern (circa 1899/1900)

I've always been intrigued by this famous old pub in the small settlement of Kaihu, on the road heading to Hokianga. Many stories have been told and many theories about just when it was actually built. It took a lot of research to finally discover just when the old tavern was actually built. Some say it was moved down the hill, and others have it built in 1880. So far I haven't found any evidence at all that proves any of these theories. The nearest hotel at the time before the issue of any hotels in the settlement came into being was the Maropiu Hotel a few miles before what was then known as Opanaki until around 1896, when it was renamed Kaihu.

Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-18990707-7-2
Auckland Weekly News 07 JULY 1899 p007 

Kaihu in early July 1899, note there is no building (right foreground) where the Kaihu Tavern is now sited. The church in the midground of the image is St Agnes Catholic Church (1892/93). The Kaihu settlement expanded after the Kaihu Valley Line, was taken over by the government. The line was used to exploit the vast tracts of virgin kauri forests in the surrounding area. In 1894, the government announced the Kaihu special settlement area to assist struggling settlers and establish farming in the area.

Mr G. Mueller, Commissioner of Crown Lands, informs us that, acting undor instructions from the Government, he been given instructions for two bush village settlements of 1,000 acres each .to be laid off on the road route between the Kaihu Valley and Hokianga with a view to giving assistance to struggling settlers and establishing small homesteads. There are about 14 miles of road yet to finish between Opanake and Taheke (Hokianga), and for the present a portion of this will be done by co-operative labour, the men to be employed at bush felling and clearing and also at road making. Each of these section of 1,000 acres will afford bnsh work for about 60 men, and when cleared will be divided into 100 acre sections, which can then be taken up on perpetual lease by 'a number of the men who cleared them. Another section of 1,000 acres in the vicinity will be reserved for a similar purpose though Mr Mueller has as yet received no instructions to throw it open. The whole of the present road works in the North will not absorb more than 30 men from Auckland at present, as the struggling small settlers have the first claim, but Mr Mueller says that he could put a couple of thousand men on absolutely necessary road works in the North if the money were only available.
Auckland Star, Volume XXV, Issue 103, 1 May 1894, Page 5

Kaihu Railway Station yards and settlement (circa 1910s)
Trains at Kaihu railway station. Northwood brothers :
Photographs of Northland. 
Ref: 1/1-006350-G. 
Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Very little existed at Kaihu township (previously named Opanake until 1896) other than the railway yards and the resident maori population. After the government announced the settlement scheme and improved the railway line, the town was transformed into a bustling community

...The train is running to and fro between Dargaville and Kaihu, generally twice or thrice, bringing in long lines of trucks loaded with kauri, to the extent of 40,000 to 60,000 feet a trip. At Kaihu a number of business premises have been built. The new station and post office are nearly completed.... 
Auckland Star, Volume XXVII, Issue 299, 16 December 1896, Page 3

The main part of the settlement was centered around the Kahu Railway station yards. The township was a haven for gumdiggers, kauri bushmen and the resident Maori owners. Kaihu has a unique history which will be investigated further in another post. In this post I'll be looking at the origins of the legendary pub on the road to Hokianga.

The idea of having a public house in the settlement of Kaihu originated in early 1896, when the licensee of the Maropiu Hotel one Samuel Powell, made an application to the Bay of Islands Licensing Court. Powell had applied to transfer the licence from the Maropiu Hotel located south of present day Kaihu) to what was then known as the Opanaki Boarding house. Powell intended to rename the Opanaki Boarding House the Opanaki Hotel.

New Zealand Herald, Volume XXXIII, Issue 10052, 12 February 1896, Page 8

Powell had taken over the Maropiu Hotel license in 1895, from the previous licensee Arthur Dempsey. The hotel which being leased from Netana Patuawa by L.D. Nathan.
LICENSING DISTRICT OF BAY OF ISLANDS.—NOTICE OF APPLICATION FOR TRANSFER OF LICENSE. I, Arthur Dempsey, of Maropiu, being the holder of an Accommodaton License in respect of the house and premises situate at Maropiu. and known as the Maropiu Hotel, do hereby give notice that I desire to obtain and will, at the next Licensing Meeting to beholden at Kawakawa, on the eighth day of March, 1895, apply for a Transfer of the said License from myself to Samuel Powell, of Maropiu aforesaid, my appointee. Dated the third,day of January, 1895.—Arthur Dempsey, Applicant.
New Zealand Herald, Volume XXXII, Issue 9737, 6 February 1895, Page 8 

Licensing district of bay of ISLANDS.-NOTICE OF APPLICATION FOR AN ACCOMMODATION LICENSE.—I. Samuel Powell, of Maropiu. Innkeeper, do hereby give notice that I desire to obtain, and will, at the next Licensing Meeting to be holden at Kawakawa, on the seventh day of June, 1895, apply for a Certificate authorising the issue of an Accommodation License for premises situate at Maropiu, and known as the Maropiu Hotel. Dated the twenty-ninth day of April. 1895. SAMUEL POWELL, Applicant. Name of owner of premises, Netana Patuawa. Name of lessee, Laurence David Nathan.
 New Zealand Herald, Volume XXXII, Issue 9809, 2 May 1895, Page 8

A further investigation into the 1896 application, turned out to be a disappointment for Samuel Powell. He was turned down flat by the Bay of Islands Licensing Committee. A few months later we see him still at the Maropiu Hotel paying a license fee. The article below also shows there was no hotel at Kaihu in existence in 1896. There is a mention of the "Traveller's Rest, Opanake" however that was located at Waima (now Tarawhati), as the article later refers to in the list of license renewals

The annual meeting of the Bay of Islands Licensing Court was held in Kawakawa on June 5, before Messrs. K. Wyles (chairman), J. Shannon, F. Mackenzie, J. Trounsen, R. A. Hall, and G. F. Dickenson. New application: William Hazard, of Peria, Mange nui, applied for an accommodation license. An increase of the number of licensed houses not allowed, therefore application was passed over. Transfers: R. Spencer, of Travellers' Rest, Opanaki, Wairoa, to George Lineham. John Connelly, Settlers' Hotel, Kaeo, to John Jacentho. All granted. Renewals The following accommodation licenses were granted-.—J. B. Taaffe. Redan Hotel, Kaitaia, Mangonui, feo £10; C. Cothard, Masonic Hotel, Whangaroa, fee £15; Geo. Lineham, Travellers' Rest, Waima, fee £10; John Jacentho, Settlers' Hotel, Kaeo, fee £20; J. C. Bindon, Horeke Hotel, Hokianga, fee £5 Robt. Jarvie, Kawerua Hotel, Hokianga, fee £10; A. S. Andrews, Opononi Hotel, Hokianga, fee £5 H. Baskerville, Kohukohu Hotel, Hokianga, fee £20; A. W. Ellis, Masonic Hotel, Rawene. foe £20; J. Ogle, Rangiahua Hotel, Hokianga, fee £10; E. A. Cunningham, Tuheke, Hokianga, fee £10; Win. Woods, Hukerenui Hotel, Bay of Islands, fee £10; R. Marshall, Towai Hotel, Bay of Islands, fee £10; J. Hunter, Mangakahia Hotel, Mangakahia, fee £10; Sam Powell, Maropiu Hotel, Wairoa, fee £10. Hotel licenses, annual fee £25 each, were granted as follows Rogers, Kaihu Hotel, Dargaville; Michael Corcoran, Northern Wairoa Hotel, Dargaville; Fred. T. Howard, Commercial Hotel, Mangawhare M. O'Connor, Aratapu Hotel, Aratapu; Joe Evans, Travellers' Rest, Awanui; P. Shine, Awanui Hotel, Awanui; G. Williams. Settlers' Hotel, Mangonui; H. Littleproud, Mangonui Hotel, Mangonui; H. Pitman, Duke of Marlborough Hotel, Russell M. E. Keatley, Masonic Hotel, Kawakawa C. Reinhnrdt, Junction Hotel, Kawakawa G. H. Brewer, Star Hotel, Kawakawa Frs. W. Shaw, Kaikohe Hotel, KaikoheS. F. Hedlund, Ohaeawai Hotel, Ohaeawai. This was all the business.— [Own Correspondent.]
New Zealand Herald, Volume XXXIII, Issue 10160, 17 June 1896, Page 4

Kaihu Settlement 1907 
Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-19070411-13-2

The first successful application to establish a hotel at Kaihu was made by John Johnston in early 1899, when he had applied for an accommodation license for an establishment of "seven rooms" of which the owner was  Moss Davis of Auckland based brewing company Hancock & Co Ltd. The hotel itself was built by Onehunga building company John Rowe and Sons Ltd (New Zealand Herald, Volume LXXII, Issue 22002, 8 January 1935, Page 9)

Auckland Star, Volume XXX, Issue 110, 11 May 1899, Page 3
The application to transfer the hotel license from the Waima Hotel situated around 3 miles (4.8 km) from Kaihu settlement soon sparked the ire of the Temperance movement. Meetings were held across the country with resolutions in turn decreed.  The meeting in Auckland included the Reverend William Gittos:

A public meeting was held on Saturday evening in the Foresters' Hall, Karangahapo Road, to discuss the question of the granting of a publican's license at Kaihu, for which an application will be considered at the next meeting of the Licensing Bench in that district. There was a large attendance, Mr. S. C. Brown occupying the chair, amongst those present being the Revs. W. J. Williams, V. Ready, and Gittos, and Messrs. T. E. Taylor, M.H.K., and Richardson. 
The Chairman said that the object of tho meeting was to enter a strong protest against the granting of a publican's license at Kaihu, for which application was to be made. The Act provided that no license could be removed to new promises if these premises were more than half-a-mile from the premises already licensed. The license in question was three miles from the existing licensed house, and must therefore be regarded as an entirely new license. Whatever the provisions of theAct were if tended to be, the spirit of the law was continually broken since the new Licensing Act came into force. 
At Kaihu there was a large native population. It might be said that this had nothing to do with Europeans, but the Maori, as well as the European, must be protected from the curse of drink. (Applause). Tho Rev. W. . Williams said that these present were anxious to hear what was to be said on tho matter by Mr. T. K. Taylor, M.H.R. for Christchureh—(applause)—who could speak officially on the subject. He read a portion of a letter received from the Rev. S. J. Gibson, who wrote stating that there was a good deal of feeling expressed on the subject of tho Kaihu license, as there were two accommodation licenses within three miles.
The Maoris had drawn up a petition, asking that the district might be made a prohibited one, but had afterwards withdrawn it. He tho speaker) was glad to observe that the Education Board was strongly opposed to tho granting of a license, and that the police had been instructed to oppose it when the applicaion came up. (Applause.)
 He moved, That this meeting, having been informed that it is the intention of Messrs. Hancock and Co. to apply for a publican's license at Kaihu, respectfully urges the Licensing Committee not to grant such license, on the grounds (1) that it is not required; (2) that it contravenes tho law, bing close to the public school and church; (3) that it would demoralise, the natives, large numbers of whom live in tho neighbourhood."
The Rev. W. Gittos seconded, and said that then was no necessity for house in the district, as both the Europeans and Maori settlers protested against it. Mr. T. E. Taylor, who was received with applause, said it was the brewers that they were fighting now, not, the publicans, as was the case a few years ago. Thev had a. duty to perform towards the natives. The police were opposed to the license, but do what they might, unless public opinion stepped in, the license would be granted. He suggested that a deputation from the meeting wait upon the Premier with a resolution, and ask him to have the Act so amended as to leave no opportunity of effecting a transfer as at present. The Chairman did not agree with Mr. Taylor as to the advisability of tending a doputafaon to the Premier. The resolution was then put and carried unanimously, and it was resolved that the following form a deputation to wait on the Right Hon. the Premier:..
New Zealand Herald, Volume XXXVI, Issue 11075, 29 May 1899, Page 3

At the end of May 1899 the Temperance Movement's deputation of the Reverends went in force,and paid the Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Richard Seddon, a visit to discuss with him the evils of the dreaded drink coming into Kaihu. At the Star Hotel in Auckland King Dick Seddon faced a formidable group of men of the cloth with the sole object of puersuading him to veto the future granting of the dreaded Kaihu hotel license.

...The Rev. W. J. Williams said the principal question the deputation wished to bring under the notice of the Premier was that of The application which had been made for a liquor license at Kaihu. There were arguments of considerable strength against the granting of a license in that district. A petition had been sent by the natives at Kaihu asking to have the district proclaimed as a district in which no liquor could be sold. They did not wish a hotel there, but it appeared now that this hotel was to be built on native land. Influence had since been brought to bear on the natives, who had withdrawn the petition asking for the proclamation of the Kaihu as a prohibited district. The deputation now understood that the Government had given the police instructions to oppose the petition for the license.
The Premier: I beg your pardon;. I have not given such instructions to the police. I shall myself be no party to giving instructions to the police after what has been said about the Government in the past. I shall not interfere with the police at all; and, as far as the police are concerned, I have taken no action. However, I believe the Justice Department have taken some action; the police are taking steps, but the Government has not.
Mr Williams said what the deputation wanted was to have the district proclaimed as a native licensing- district, under section 25 of the Act, so that a native assessor would sit with the Licensing-Bench, and his assent would be necessary before a license could be granted, and so that the sale of liquor to natives could be prohibited in the district.
The Rev. W. Gittos said that paternal protection in this direction was needed in the best interests of the natives in the district. He hoped the Government would extend that protection to Ihe natives which was so desirable, and prevent their falling victims to the evils of strong drink. The license for the hotel was to loe transferred from another part of the country.
The Premier said he had received a telegram from Mr Hone Heke. M H R on the subject, nnd the Justice Department had advised him that the proposed hotel was to be erected on land held by Europeans. 
Mr Williams said that according to his latest information it had been decked to build the hotel on native land.
The Premier said that if that were so it would alter the aspect of the case. However he would enquire into it and get the latest information. The deputation knew his views on the question of liquor amongst the natives. He considered it was inimical to them as a race, and it was not to the merit of the colony to have liquor amongst them. His legislation had been in the direction of stopping the harm done by liquor amongst them, and he instanced the fact of the Government, having stopped the sale of liquor to Maori women. But he did not think the law was intended to set apart, special areas in various places in the way in which the deputation would like it done. The Government would not be a party to interference with the administration of the Licensing Act.  Such a thing would be reprehensible, and the Government had not done it! 
The prohibition party had made complaints that the Government had done so in the past, and yet now they come and asked him to interfere. There would be no interference with the police on the part of the Government to say object to or support an application. The police were the best judges of a case themselves the Government never had interfered.
Regarding the proclamation of a district, if the hotel was on land owned by Europeans the Government could not interfere. In these transfers of licenses a way had been discovered of evading the law, but that happened with many Jaws. They must leave the administration of that law to the licensing bench; and as Native Minister he would do his utmost to protect the native race from what he believed to be inimical to their interests.
Pastor G. T. Bull wished to bring under the notice of the Premier the necessity for bringing the local option under the Corrupt Practices Act. They also wanted legal provisions made for scrutineers in connection with the local option poll. They wottld in addition like uniform instructions issued to returning officers regarding the poll.
The Premier returned a favourable reply to the first request. He said that he would take care to appoint returning officers who were competent and who could construe the Act properly. He wished also to see the local option poll carried out properly, so that a bona fide vote of the people could be. taken, and he wished to see the poll carried out fairly and properly.
In answer to other questions the Premier said he thought the registrars of electors should be liable to a penalty if the electoral rolls were not properly checked, and if people who voted were improperly struck off. The Government had given instructions to the registrars of electors to send round and get people placed on the rolls. That was construed into an act of corruption, but he was going to get all the people of the colony put on the rolls no matter what tiheir political views were. There ought to be penalties imposed for careless or incompetent making up of the rolls. After some further conversation the deputation withdrew.
Auckland Star, Volume XXX, Issue 128, 1 June 1899, Page 5

In June, the deputation's efforts were all but defeated. The Bay of Islands Licensing Court granted the licence, another feather in the cap for Hancock & Co Ltd owner Moss Davis as he added another hotel to his growing portfolio of establishments in the Northern Wairoa region.  Davis would, just a mere too years later, be entangled once again in yet another Temperance vs Brewery Company debate. The Maungaturoto Hotel made national headlines over the granting of the license under similar circumstances, with some familiar names in the Temperance movement leading the charge. A rival brewery company it seems, had also objected to Moss Davis owning yet another hotel in an area, where they already had established their public houses.

The Bay of Islands District Licensing Court commenced its sitting yesterday at noon and concluded at midnight. There were present Mr J. S. Clendon. S.M. (chairman), Messrs H. A. Hall, John Trounsen; G. F: Dickeson, and F. Mackenzie. The applications of twenty-seven licensed houses in the district were all granted, with the exception of the Wairna Accommodation House, three miles away from Kaihu, and the Masonic Hotel, at Kawakawa, which were abandoned.
After hearing the applications for a house at Hohoura, twenty-five- miles from Awanui, what might be termed the great fight for a hotel,at Kaih,u took place. This was vigorously opposed by Mr M. A. McLeod, solicitor, of Dargaville, and the police. A large number of witnesses on both side were examined. Mr Blomfield, of Kawakawa, who was for the applicants, Messrs Hancock and Co. representing the same. The petition, for the house in question was signed by 250 people. The petition against was a small affair, while the native chiefs and residents-had withdrawn all opposition. 
The Rev. Gittos and others (especially prohibitionists) spoke against the new introduction, but in the opinion of the majority of the bench it was thought better to grant the application and so sweep away, extensive sly grog selling. The native population were, said to be entirely in favour of the granting of the license, and now express full satisfaction with the arrangements made with them re the sale of liquor, over which they have the right of veto.
Auckland Star, Volume xxx, Issue 136, 10 June 1899, Page 5

The hotel mentioned at Waima was not the Hokianga Waima on the modern maps. Waima was later renamed Tarawhati. At the time of the licence debacle, there were two hotels within a short distance of Kaihu. The Waima hotel was known by the sign of The Traveller's Rest, and the second establishment at Maropiu south of Kaihu was called the Maropiu Hotel. Both hotels no longer exist.

Some time between the time of the granting of the license and 1900, the Opanaki Hotel was built. John Johnston's application mentions the building as having seven rooms excluding those used for the family. It's possible that the initial first stage of the hotel was completed within a short time frame. The architect Moss Davis mainly used for the design of his Northland Hotels was the prominent John Currie of Auckland. Despite a search for tenders for the construction of the new hotel, at this stage I can't locate any. It was the same for the Maungaturoto Hotel, which was constructed in pre-fabrication form down at the yards of J. Rowe & Sons builders of Onehunga. The July 1899 image of the birds eye view of the Kaihy settlement shows no indication of any building being present. As an aside it's interesting to note that Edwin Mitchelson's timber sawmilling company had already established itself in the area. He was also present at the opening of Hancock & Co's new brewery in Auckland, which was also designed by John Currie. It's a possibility Mitchelson's company constructed the hotel on site for Davis. For now that remains purely a speculation on my part.

BAY OF ISLANDS LICENSING DISTRICT.— NOTICE OF APPLICATION FOR A PUBLICAN'S LICENSE.—I, JANE EDMUNDS, of Kaihu, Hotelkeeper, do hereby give notice that I desire to obtain, and will at the next Licensing Meeting to beholden at Kawakawa, in the Courthouse, on the 5th day of June, 1901, apply for a certificate authorising the issue of a Publican's License for a house situate at Kaihu, and known by the sign of the Opunake Hotel, containing 16 rooms, exclusive of those required for the use of the family. Hancock and Co., name of owners. Dated the 1st day of May, 1901. JANE EDMUNDS, signature of Applicant.
Page 3 Advertisements Column 6
Auckland Star, Volume XXXII, Issue 107, 7 May 1901, Page 3

During 1900, John Johnston the publican passed away at the Northern Wairoa Hosptial leaving his wife Josephine to deal with both the running of the hotel and the mounting debts left behind. She appointed her mother  Jane Edmunds to take over the publican's license (by then the hotel had 16 rooms) on June 9, 1901 (her application by public notice was in May 1901). A large amount of debt was built up during Edmunds tenure as publican. Finally a creditor petition in March 1902, led to Josephine Johston's subsequent bankruptcy, and the repossession of the hotel by Hancock & Co Ltd. The creditor's meeting was long and drawn out with Johnston accusiing Moss Davis of taking her possessions. Davis returned with a long reply which eventually had satisfied the hearing members. (New Zealand Herald,  19 March 1902)

                                                                Advertisement New Zealand Herald 8th May 1902

With Johnston bankrupt, the publican's license of the hotel was then taken over by Benjamin Cossey in June 1902. The number of rooms it seems had increased from the sixteen mentioned in Jane Edmund's application to a significant 20 rooms in Cossey's.
Granted; fee, £10. B. Cossey, Opanaki Hotel, Kaihu—Granted upon the applicant undertaking to put up fixed lamp and repair pane of glass.
New Zealand Herald, Volume XL, Issue 12292, 9 June 1903, Page 6

There is one institution in Kaihu which, at its inception, caused a wave of excitement amongst a large section of the population, and that is the Opanaki hotel. When those interested in the matter first conceived the idea of having a publicans' license transferred from Hokianga (the writer had the wrong Waima) to Wairoa, the trouble began, and it was not confined to the district responsible for the disturbance. Public meetings were held in Auckland and elsewhere to protest against the movement, the assistance of our legislators was invoked to veto the proposal, and for a time a battle royal ensued between the temperance and the brewer sections, with the result that Kaihu has a commodious and well-appointed hostelry which is dominated not only by a licensing bench, but by the native owners of the property, who at any time may issue a prohibitory mandate against any Maori being supplied with liquor. The system has worked admirably, and I am told that natives seldom visit the hotel.
Auckland Star, Volume XXXVIII, Issue 301, 18 December 1907, Page 6

The Kaihu Tavern circa 1916-1920
Kaihu. Northwood brothers :Photographs of Northland.
 Ref: 1/1-010701-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

Renewals of licenses were granted as follow at the annual meeting of the Kaipara Licensing Committee —Aratapu hotel, M O'Connor; Central hotel, H. Dyer; Kaipara hotel, T. McEwin Northern Wairoa hotel, F. C. Bass Pahi hotel, J. Ryan Opanaki hotel. G. Meale; Bridge hotel, T. P. Gray...                                            Northern Advocate , 11 June 1910, Page 4

By 1910, the hotel had a new publican, one G Meale, who stayed on at the hotel for some time despite some trouble he ran into with some of the local residents.
During New Year's Eve and. early on New Year's morning a number of maoris turned themselves loose in Kaihu, where  there is, no resident police, and caused  considerable annoyance, as well. as, damage. As a sequel, a number of natives were  brought before the court this afternoon, and charged with damaging property belonging to Mr. Meale, licensee of the Opanaki Hotel,  All the accused pleaded not guilty. Constable Thompson stated that every year  the same unpleasant conditions prevailed, and instead of the residents welcoming the New Year, they feared it, owing to the conduct of these native parasites, who usually did a lot of damage. A considerable amount of. evidence was adduced, but only two of the accused were proved to have been present on the occasion, and they were each fined £2 and costs totalling altogether over £6. Time was given to pay the fines,but the company scraped up the amount and wiped off the cost of their New Year's Eve escapade at Kaihu.
 Auckland Star, Volume XLI, Issue 12, 14 January 1910, Page 2

Meale remained at the renamed "Kaihu Hotel" (1914), until around 1915/16. In 1916, the hotel was taken over by Harold Kennedy Simpson (Kaipara and Waitemata Echo , 24 June 1916). At some point after 1916, the hotel came under the care of the colourful Albert Docherty. By 1925, he was in trouble with the Inland Revenue Department for not furnishing four years worth of tax returns. The result being he was taken to court and fined for his lack of effort (Auckland Star, 29 May 1925). With the opening of the Waipoua road in January 1928, the Kaihu Hotel became a tourist destination. Docherty had a collection of kauri gum, and other strange curios be had on display in the hotel.

Later on Kaihu Hotel will cater to your requirements, and the proprietor will show you a wonderful assortment of native curios and gum specimens the equal of many of which you have never seen before.
Auckland Star, Volume LIX, Issue 281, 27 November 1928, Page 16 

In 1930, Docherty was once again on the wrong side of the law, after selling beer on a Sunday. 
Mr. G. N. V. Docherty, licensee of the Kaihu Hotel, pleaded gnilty to a charge of supplying liquor after hours to .five Maoris. Mr Capp, who appeared for the police, asked that, two additional charges arising: ontof the same offence be withdrawn. Docherty was fined £3 and costs 12/. W. A Hallmond, the driver of the car containing the Maoris, was fined 20/ and costs for being on licensed premises after hours. The passengers m the car, Walter Andrew, George Hayward, Ranga Tau, Joe Witihera and P. Reihana, all of Rawene, were fined 20/ and costs.
Auckland Star, Volume LXI, Issue 152, 30 June 1930, Page 19

Docherty added to his collection of curiosties when someone had shot an usually marked Pukeko dubbed "The Coronation Pukeko"

Coronation Pukeko. A bird destined to have a future as a museum specimen and one which has been aptly named "the Coronation pukeko." was recently shot at Mareretu, writes the "Star's" Whangarei correspondent. The bird, which was shot on Coronation Day, bears in its plumage the national colours—blue and white breast, and a red coronet. Its wings are dark black, but the feathers on the back are mostly a pure white. The general effect is one of striking beauty. The rare bird has been forwarded to the private museum of Mr. A. V. Docherty, licensee of the Kaihu Hotel. Endeavours are being made to secure the novelty for show at the Whangarei Winter Exhibition.
Auckland Star, Volume LXVIII, Issue 126, 29 May 1937, Page 8

The very last mention of the hotel or Albert Doherty in Papers Past is in the year 1942, when he had to attend the sad suicide of a school teacher residing at his hotel

DARGAVILLE, Sept. 23. Angus Ross, teacher, who was recently appointed to the Maropiu School ana arrived in the district yesterday, was found dead this morning in his room at the Kaihu Hotel by the licensee, Mr. A. V. Docherty. Mr. Ross, who was between 40 and 45 years of age, was a married man, with his wife resident at Brown's Bay, Auckland, and two sons attending secondary school. When discovered, Ross had a revolver in his hand. An inquest was opened and adjourned.
Evening Post, Volume CXXXIV, Issue 75, 25 September 1942, Page 3

According to the blog post "Kaihu Tavern:" (14 October 2009) of  artist and author Don Donovan, Albert Docherty and his strange museum remained at the hotel until 1951.

"The most famous landlord was Albert Docherty who bought the pub in 1917. Like Bill Evans of Houhora, he was a man of many parts: hire-car operator, ambulance driver, nurse, athlete, cyclist, trophy hunter… he built a famous collection of kauri gum which adorned his main bar along with curiosities such as a two-headed calf, a four-legged chicken, a hair-ball from a cow’s stomach, several deer’s heads, stuffed trout, boars’ tusks, and Maori patu and taiaha. It became something of a tourist destination in its own right and was certainly an important stop on the way to Waipoua kauri forest and the Hokianga. The museum went with Albert in 1951. It’s just as well, those bits and pieces are terrible dust traps. Since then the pub has been saner but you can feel the history oozing through the floorboards. "
Don Donovan's World,, Ramblings of a much published New Zealand author
14 October 2009 

Whatever the rest of the old Kaihu Tavern's history may or may not be. It has plenty of stories to tell, and yet another Northland hotel with a Moss Davis connection to add to the list of  headaches for the now long since gone gentlemen of the Temperance movement.  The hotel has since changed its name to the Kaihu Tavern. It is a Category 2 Historic Place on the Register of Historic Places.